Some countries have seen a slight decline in FGM rates, while others show little to no change. The practice of forcing young girls into early marriage, common in many parts of the world, is threatening their reproductive health.
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According to the World Health Organization: . The female spouse often lacks the status and the knowledge to negotiate for safe sex and contraceptive practices, increasing the risk of acquiring HIV or other sexually transmitted infections, as well as the probability of pregnancy at an early age. Niger has the highest prevalence of child marriage under 18 in the world, while Bangladesh has the highest rate of marriage of girls under age Delegations from States took part in negotiations to finalize a Programme of Action on population and development for the next 20 years.
Some 20, delegates from various governments, UN agencies, NGOs , and the media gathered for a discussion of a variety of population issues, including immigration , infant mortality , birth control , family planning , and the education of women. Reproductive health therefore implies that people are able to have a satisfying and safe sex life and that they have the capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide if, when and how often to do so.
Implicit in this last condition are the right of men and women to be informed [about] and to have access to safe, effective, affordable and acceptable methods of family planning of their choice, as well as other methods of birth control which are not against the law, and the right of access to appropriate health-care services that will enable women to go safely through pregnancy and childbirth and provide couples with the best chance of having a healthy infant.
The Program of Action endorses a new strategy which emphasizes the numerous linkages between population and development and focuses on meeting the needs of individual women and men rather than on achieving demographic targets. The keys to this new approach are empowering women, providing them with more choices through expanded access to education and health services, and promoting skill development and employment. The programme advocates making family planning universally available by or sooner, as part of a broadened approach to reproductive health and rights, provides estimates of the levels of national resources and international assistance that will be required, and calls on governments to make these resources available.
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Reproductive health was Goal 5 out of 8. To monitor the progress, the UN agreed to four indicators: . All 17 goals are comprehensive in nature and build off one another, but goal 3 is "To ensure health lives and promote wellbeing for all at all ages". Sub-Saharan Africa is the worst affected world region for prevalence of HIV, especially among young women. In most African countries, the total fertility rate is very high,  often due to lack of access to contraception and family planning, and practices such as forced and child marriage.
Niger, Angola, Mali, Burundi and Somalia have very high fertility rates. The updated contraceptive guidelines in South Africa attempt to improve access by providing special service delivery and access considerations for sex workers, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex individuals, migrants, men, adolescents, women who are perimenopausal, have a disability, or chronic condition. They also aim to increase access to long acting contraceptive methods, particularly the copper IUD, and the introductions of single rod progestogen implant and combined oestrogen and progestogen injectables.
The copper IUD has been provided significantly less frequently than other contraceptive methods but signs of an increase in most provinces were reported. Tanzanian provider perspectives address the obstacles to consistent contraceptive use in their communities. It was found that the capability of dispensaries to service patients was determined by inconsistent reproductive goals, low educational attainment, misconceptions about the side effects of contraceptives, and social factors such as gender dynamics, spousal dynamics, economic conditions, religious norms, cultural norms, and constraints in supply chains.
A provider referenced and example of propaganda spread about the side effects of contraception: "There are influential people, for example elders and religious leaders. They normally convince people that condoms contain some microorganisms and contraceptive pills cause cancer". Another said that women often had pressure from their spouse or family that caused them to use birth control secretly or to discontinue use, and that women frequently preferred undetectable methods for this reason.
Access was also hindered as a result of a lack in properly trained medical personnel: "Shortage of the medical attendant The majority of medical centers were staffed by people without medical training and few doctors and nurses, despite federal regulations, due to lack of resources. One center had only one person who was able to insert and remove implants, and without her they were unable to service people who wanted an implant inserted or removed.
Another dispensary that carried two methods of birth control shared that they sometimes run out of both materials at the same time. Constraints in supply chains sometimes cause dispensaries to run out of contraceptive materials. Providers also claimed that more male involvement and education would be helpful. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the journal, see International Journal of Sexual Health. Further information: Teenage pregnancy and Adolescent sexuality.
No data. Main article: Sexually transmitted infection. Main article: Female genital mutilation. Main articles: Child marriage and Forced marriage.
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Retrieved American Journal of Public Health. World Health Organization. UN Population Fund. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Retrieved 16 March Springer, Cham.
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Retrieved September 23, The Nation. Fides et Historia. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. Retrieved 4 March February Clinical Infectious Diseases. Reproductive Health Matters. Women's Health Issues. The New York Times. Style and Substance. Wall Street Journal.
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Human Rights Committee. United Nations. I did often feel like he was trying to prove Taoism with correlation when there was no evidence of causation. Many of the practices appear to provide health benefits by their own merits without having to be connected to Tao. Worth reading.
Fast regularly, More like 3. Fast regularly, eat lots of raw food, and avoid eating certain types of food together. There are many health benefits if you focus on more than just yourself. This was mostly aimed at men. I was particularly interested in the food section, proper combining and the food role in curing ailments. A wonderful history lesson on Tao.
Glad to know there are still practitioners here on earth. Some parts I will take, some parts seem extreme.
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Overall a good reference book that I will refer to again and again. Apr 19, Taylor Ellwood rated it it was amazing Shelves: taoism , meditation. This is an excellent book on Taoism that provides you a practical guide on your health, with lots of suggestions that can help you improve your health and well-being. Even implementing some of these suggestions can make a difference in your life and strengthen the work that you do with your inner alchemy.
Jun 07, Simon rated it it was amazing. Amazing book - highly recommended. I loved this and learnt a lot. Life changer book Good book! This is a life plan! I recommend it.. I little bit extensive but worth it!! Good book.
Aug 21, Kat rated it liked it. This book so far has been extremely informative in regards to eastern medicine and diet, proposing lifestyle changes to lead to a healthier body, mind, and soul. Some of the tips are things I would not regularly practice myself, but I still find their explanation for why they are necessary to be of interest. Oct 25, Patrick rated it really liked it. I have completed two 7 day fasts in the last year and this book was a great reference but have yet to try the colonics aka: colon cleansing program recommended in the book.
Dec 30, Margarita rated it liked it Shelves: non-fiction. This is an informative introductory book. I didn't though care for the often preachy tone nor the constant pitting of Eastern versus Western medicine. It isn't a competition and one isn't superior over the other. Each side has its own merits. There are some very useful and practical applications provided in this guide.